These wide bristles pull the fibers in one direction, separate those which are individually tangled together and form them into a thin film. Novelty yarns: Improving aesthetic look of fabrics, http://lisajoycedesigns.com/images/yarn_0157.jpg, http://www.woollylambyarnshop.com/img/YarnNovelty.jpg, http://www.msyarn.com/english/jie_news/2008424102847.html, http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00hMdTNijClRkW/Acrylic-Loop-Yarn.jpg, http://sleepknitting.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/astrakhan-upclose.jpg, http://www.dropspindleyarns.net/assets/images/3_Cut__Small_.jpg, http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9pqs5VpY1dA/T_OAarWkL9I/AAAAAAAAHAQ/_N4NQDTb96k/s1600/7.jpg, http://www.angelyarns.com/images/curly-wurly.jpg, http://img0.etsystatic.com/il_570xN.244448000.jpg, http://www.dailyknitter.com/images/peggy.jpg, http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JF9CoKnFZ8Y/T0aXVRFjaKI/AAAAAAAABSg/jIWuH38UML4/s1600/IMG_2994.JPG. There are three types of textured yarns. 3.Cord yarns are produced by twisting two or more ply yarns. Novelty yarn effects are permanent. 6. Here is the types of novelty yarn in textile spinning discussed bellow. Spin-staple yarns consist of staple fibers assembled and bound together by various means (usually twist) to produce the required characteristics such as strength, handle and appearance . Novelty yarns. From top to bottom: Regular yarn, braided yarn, ladder yarn and ribbon yarn. GSMuellerDesigns. Fancy or novelty yarns are of decorative purpose. The fancy or effect 3. Mono filaments are filament yarns composed of one single filament. Sewing threads require certain yarn properties. Ply Yarns are Ratine, Spiral, Knot, Snarl and Boucle. The durability of a novelty yarn depends on the size of the ply effect, the fibre content and firmness of the fabric structure. Novelty yarns are usually uneven is size, varied in color or modified appearance by their formation. Used for home furnishing, apparel, Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with unusual features, structure or fiber composition such as slubs, inclusions, metallic or synthetic fibers, laddering and varying thickness introduced during production. Chenille yarn 9. They 'go further' and are subject to less strain and are easy to vary for design purpose. Co-efficient of variation (CV %), 3. Slub Yarn is also a single, spun novelty yarn, which is also known as a thick-and-thin yarn. Novelty yarns are usually ply yarns, but they are not used to add strength to the fabric. A number of filaments laid together with more or less twist. Textile Education is the largest textile blog over the net. Novelty yarns add interest to plain weave fabrics at lower cost. Chenille yarn is made by cutting a specially woven ladderlike fabric into warpwise strips. Boucle yarn 6. Some examples of polyester yarn are as follows: Glow in the dark- For a long time, this yarn was made by organizations but its production came to a halt. Incorporates all 3 basic weaves & their combination. There are many methods that are used for manufacturing textured yarns like stuffer box crimping, draw texturizing, air-jet method, Kni Deknit method and gear crimping. 1. Binder yarn, which holds the effect ply and the ground ply together. -The binder is used to tie the effect yarn to the base yarn if binding is necessary. Novelty yarns that are loose and bulky give crease resistance to a fabric but they make the fabric spongy and hard to sew. What are the 3 major yarn categories? These yarns should be avoided for manufacturing those fabrics where durability and long wear is required. Metallic yarns. Novelty yarns are classified according to the single or ply structure: Tweed yarn is a single, spun novelty yarn. They may be spun, filament or textured yarns- or any combination of yarn types. Being familiar with the characteristics of these striking yarns gives textile designer limitless choices in design. TYPES OF NOVELTY YARNS : 1.FANCY YARN: Different coloured fibres can be blended together then spun as one yarn. The comber is a refining device by which the paralleling and straightening of the individual fibers is carried to a more exact degree. The majority of textured yarns are made from filament fibers. Belle Novelty yarn/trim/fiber bundle - 18 yards for tassel making, doll making, baby books, party table decor, and much more! There are two main numbering system in use. The parts of a novelty yarn exposed beyond the surface of the ground ply are particularly vulnerable to abrasion. These films produce luminous effects and are more comfortable than pure metallic yarns. Slubs or flakes or short-staple fibres of different colour are introduced into the yarn by special attachments. Bulk textured yarns 2. It affects the characteristics and properties of a yarn including appearance, behaviour and durability. GSMuellerDesigns. Jul 15, 2020 - Explore Martha Vickery's board "Novelty Yarn Patterns" on Pinterest. Thin place in yarn, 10. Two effect plies of different colours may be used and the knots are arranged in such a manner that the coloured spots alternate along the length of the yarn. In order to produce a uniform product, the fibers from numerous bales be blended, or thoroughly mixed together, and from this composite, the final yarns will be produced . There are a number of characteristics that make Georgette a unique fabric. Slub Yarn is also a single, spun novelty yarn, which is also known as a thick-and-thin yarn. -> 1.Denier (900 m1 gms=1 Denier) 2.Tex (1tex=1gm/km  840), -> 1.Matric No. By flocking or gluing short fibres on the surface of the yarn. ASTM defines a fancy yarn as a yarn that differs significantly from the normal appearance of single or plied yarns due to the presence of irregularities deliberately produced during its formation. These are much longer than staple fibers. Some metallic-looking yarns are made from ultrafine plastic fibres of nylon or polyester split film made of many layers. These yarns are used in apparel, knitting, furnishings and even soft toys. The twist density affects the hardness of a yarn and hence the handle and the appearance of textiles. Flake yarns are variations of the slub yarns. 'Set-modified stretch textured yarns. The below characteristics of yarn has needed during knit fabric manufacturing or knitting. Textured yarns bear superficial resemblance to simplex or complex yarns. It is also called the tie yarn. Flake yarn is used only in fancy-effect applications. The durability of novelty yarn fabrics is dependent on the size of the novelty effect, how well the novelty effect is held in the yarn and on the firmness of the weave on the fabric. Ratine yarn 5. Each strand of single yarn is referred to as a ply; two single yarns twisted together would form a 2-ply yarn. Knot Yarn is made by twisting the effect ply many times at the same place. Crinkled. The descriptions “Scottish,” “Welsh,” “Cheviot,” “Saxony,” “Harris,” “Yorkshire,” “Donegal,” and “West of Characteristics: highly intricate large designs using colored yarns and multi-weaves produced on a loom with jacquard attachment. The novelty produced , possesses the properties of both(or more) the yarns. 5 out of 5 stars (94) 94 reviews $ 6.50. Probably the most common method is to convert fibers into yarns, which are then constructed into fabrics. 10. Characteristics of Spun Yarns and Filament Yarns. They are determined mainly by the fibre type and the spinning system. Knots or slubs are made at regular or random intervals as the machine operates. Yarn is defined as the continuous length of interlocked fibres used for the production of woven or knitted fabrics, for sewing and for embroidery. Tweeds are often made of wool because of its cohesiveness. Fabrics manufactured from novelty yarns are not only used in apparel, but also in upholstery. Metallic yarns are mostly used for decorative purposes, like in embroidery threads and in brocade fabrics. Yarns can be made either from short staple length fibers or from filament fibers. In plied yarns the irregularities may be due to a variable delivery of one or more of its components or to twisting together dissimilar single yarns. We produce it in textile yarn manufacturing.The use of it is for decorative purpose. Spinning is a continuation of the roving and on the spinning frame many spools containing the roving pass through the ring spinning mechanism which further draws and twists to a yarn of the required size and twist and winds it on bobbins preparatory to the weaving operation. This produces loose, curled, twisted, or looped areas in the yarn. Novelty or fancy yarn 11. The twisting process by which fibers are formed into a yarn is referred to as spinning. These yarns are popular for knitted fabrics as well for fabrics like trimmings. Novelty or fancy yarns, typically made of two or more strands, are produced to provide decorative surface effects. Covered Yarn Characteristics. These include: Lightweight and breathable. Novelty yarns give fabrics interesting and decorative surface effects, and the textile designers can create fabric with raised or nubby surface textures as distinguished from the usual flat surface of most textile materials by using novelty yarns, which enhance the beauty of a fabric at low cost, emphasises Nitika Rana. Short fibers twisted into continuous strand, has protruding ends. Flecks of short coloured fibres are twisted into the yarn to add interest. The durability of novelty yarn fabrics is dependent on the size of the novelty effect, how well the novelty effect is held in the yarn and on the firmness of the weave on the fabric. They are made by introducing spiral forms of irregularity or hairiness into either spun continuous filament yarn. 5 out of 5 stars (94) 94 reviews $ 6.50. Fancy yarns, also called novelty or effect yarns, represent another category of yarns in which deliberate irregularities, discontinuities and color variations are introduced into the yarn structure with the primary intention being to produce enhanced esthetic and fashionable impressions. By using novelty yarns, one gets into a process of creating a beautiful product at a reasonable price. Chenille yarns are also called 'caterpillar' yarns. The term novelty yarn is usually used to describe a kind of yarn that has an unusual texture or other unique features. From shop GSMuellerDesigns. Apart from these, there are many other novelty yarns like Chenille, Flake, metallic and textured yarns. The performance of textile fabrics and clothing is strongly influenced by the properties of the yarns from which they are made. Imperfection in the yarn, 7. At intervals, a longer loop is thrown out, kinks back on itself, and is held in place by the binder. 2. Novelty yarns are often weak and have poor abrasion resistance. Effect ply, which is responsible for creating the design and novel appearance. 1. Metallic fibers will give you and your work special sparkle. SlubYarn. The quality and cost of novelty yarns are related to the quality of the fibres and plies from which, the yarn is made and also the regularity of yarn structure. chenille yarn, loop yarn, slub yarn, snarl yarn. Snarl yarn is a novelty yarn in which, the effect ply forms alternating open loops along both sides of the yarn. They differ from simple yarns that their structure is characterized by irregularities. Novelty yarns are usually uneven in size, varied in color, or modified in appearance by the presence of irregularities deliberately produced during their formation. Their structure may be complex and consist of several yarn plies combined into one yarn. Fabrics made from novelty yarns are generally not durable as they are susceptible to wear from abrasion. It describes textiles in comprehensive. yarn processing and utilisation. For fun, creative projects bursting with character, jump into our pool of joyous novelty, speciality and fancy knitting and crochet yarns. This process is known as carding. El Mogahzy, in Engineering Textiles, 2009. This yarn may be produced by one of the following ways: Chenille yarns are generally made from cotton, wool, rayon, nylon or polyester and are used to create fabrics that are soft and have good draping effects. Crepe and textured surface may be created from unbalanced yarns. Novelty yarn effects are permanent. The thicker yarn is given a slack twist and wound spirally around the core fine yarn, which is given a hard twist. Generally speaking, the smaller the novelty effect, the more durable the fabric is, since the yarns are less affected by abrasion and do not tend to catch and pull out so readily. Nub/spot/ knot or knob yarns 7. 9.3.3 Fancy yarns. Usually, the smaller the novelty yarn, the more durable is the fabric. These yarns are used in apparel and furnishings. Are more expensive. See more ideas about novelty yarn, yarn necklace, yarn. Spiral yarns 4. Novelty yarns are fancy yarns that deliberately have unlike parts and are irregular at intervals. NOVELTY YARNS Novelty yarns, typically made of two or more stands, are produced to provide decorative surface effects. Spiral Yarn is a ply-yarn in which, plies may differ in colour, twist, size or type. To convert textile fibers into fabrics some type of fiber arrangement is required. Y.E. From these machines, the fabric emerges as a lap, a loose, formless roll. Apart from improving the visual appearance of the fabric, these yarns also improve its texture and feel. Regularity or evenness of the yarn, 6. 'Textured' is a general term for any continuous filament yarn whose smooth straight fibers have been displaced from their closely packed, parallel position by the introduction of some form of crimp, curl, loop or coil. The thin film is drawn into a funnel shaped opening which molds it into a round rope like strand approximately an inch in diameter; this is called the sliver. The many different characteristics offered by these textile fibres enables us to produce a large range of luxury fabrics. Flock yarns 3. 'Yarn' is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as 'A generic term for a continuous strand of textile fiber, filament, or material suitable for knitting, weaving to form a textile fabric. These yarns are supported by loosely twisting one or more fine filament yarns around them. A binder is added while twisting the yarn. Coreply yarn, which gives strength to the yarn. The majority of these yarns are of manmade/synthetic fibre content. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. Bouclé: This highly bumpy, textured yarn is composed of loops. Neps, 9. If filaments are used to make yarns they may be either multifilament or monofilament . These yarns are used in mostly in furnishings. These yarns are made on twisters with special attachments for producing different tensions and rates of delivery in the different plies. Tweed yarns are found in apparel, upholstery and draperies. Tweed, any of several fabrics of medium-to-heavy weight, rough in surface texture, and produced in a great variety of colour and weave effects largely determined by the place of manufacture. Filament yarn is made of one or more continuous strands that run the entire length of the yarn. The durability of novelty yarn fabrics is dependent on the size of the novelty effect, how well the novelty effect is held in the yarn and on the firmness of the weave on the fabric. Thus, four single yarns twisted together would form a four-ply yarn. The combined or condensed combed sliver is taken to the slubber of a series of machines called roving frames. Single yarn, the simplest type of yarn, is commonly produced by twisting together staple or filament fibers. The terminology as well as the classification for novelty yarns varies considerably. Yarns made from short length fibers and the fabrics are like cotton and wool. Extensibility and elasticity are very important during. Smooth fabrics are made from balanced yarns. They are also used in making crochet and embroidery threads. Snarl yarns are also known as spike yarns. However, georgette made with synthetic fibers is less breathable than those made with silk. The aesthetic properties of a fabric can be enahanced by either varying its hand, lustre, texture, drape or appearance. Novelty yarns do it all. Belle Novelty yarn/trim/fiber bundle - 18 yards for tassel making, doll making, baby books, party table decor, and much more! To convert textile fibers into fabrics some type of fiber arrangement is required. Novelty bulky yarns may make the fabric hard to handle. The main feature of fancy yarns is improvised aesthetic properties. Yarn occurs in the following forms. Spiral yarns are also known as corkscrew or eccentric yarns. In the drawing operation, further blending is accomplished by working together several slivers and drawing or pulling them out in the drawing frame without twisting but reducing the several slivers to a single one about the same diameter as each of the components. Texturizing occurs following the spinning of the fiber material through the spinneret. Seed or splash yarn 8. Polyester yarn consists of cotton/wool/ and blends of yarn. May 26, 2019 - Explore Leslie Carey's board "novelty yarns", followed by 153 people on Pinterest. The yarns may be textured from undrawn, partially drawn or fully drawn filaments. These yarns are found in shantung, drapery, upholstery, hand-knitting yarns and in sweaters. Nylon and polyester are two major fibres that are textured. As these masses of fiber are loosened and thoroughly mixed, some remaining heavy impurities such as dirt, remnants of seeds, leaves or stems, are removed by a line of machine known respectively as pickers, breakers, intermediates and finishers each in succession being a somewhat more refined cleaner of the raw fibres. These yarns are generally used in one direction only, ie, in the filling direction because it is more economical and wastage is lesser. Rayon - Man Made Fiber : Spinning methods, Manufacturing, Properties, Acetate And Triacetate - Manufacturing Process and Properties, Nylon - Manufacturing Process and Properties, Polyester - Man Made Fiber : Manufacturing, Properties of Polyester, Types Of Yarns - Textured and Novelty Yarns, Weaving: Basic Weaving Operation, Loom Operations, Selvedges. Textured yarns also provide spunlike yarn characteristics and are more wrinkle resistant than spun yarns or regular filament yarns. It is an ultimate reference for textile students and professionals. Plied yarns are produced by twisting two or more single yarns. This is one type of novelty yarn. A number of filaments laid together without twist. Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Novelty yarns that are loose and bulky give crease resistance to a fabric but they make the fabric spongy and hard to sew. The longer fibers are again formed into a sliver, known as the comb sliver. The ratine yarn's small loops on its surface give the yarn a taut, rough-surfaced effect. The foregoing and other objects and characteristics of the present invention will be more fully understood from a consideration of the following detailed description thereof when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing. Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail, Yarn Production : Types, Characteristics of Yarn, Properties. Textile Yarn: A textile yarn is an assembly of substantial length and relatively small cross section of fibers and/or filaments with or without twist”. Novelty yarns are made primarily for their appearance. A complex ply yarn is made up of three parts: Novelty yarns are usually plied yarns, but they are often weak and sensitive to abrasion damage. There is an array of stunning high-end novelty silk yarns available in the textile industry. (840 yds=1lbs=1S) 2.English No. These yarns are mostly used in furnishings and apparel. Copyright © 2018-2021 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Textiles - Fibre Fabric by Bernard P Corbman. It may be done immediately following fiber formation and be a part of a continuous operation or it may be done some time after the filaments have been made. Probably the most common method is to convert fibers into yarns, which are then constructed into fabrics. The binder. Novelty yarns are a very big family… they exhibit a variety of textures/special effects - from the subtle to the unmissable! In single yarn the irregularities may be due to the inclusion of knots, loops, curls, slubs and the like. The amount of twist is an important factor in finished consumer goods. Yarns are essential for knitted, woven or knotted structures and for many braided ones. Novelty yarns produce an interesting or novel effects in fabrics made from them. made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, thus concealing the core Novelty yarn is a relatively new trend that has enabled a variety of new looks for knitters who prefer to depart from traditional yarn. Sometimes warmth is also added as by using textured yarns as in sweaters. Now we use novelty yarns in the art of fashion and designing textiles.. Many novelty and bulky yarns are polyester yarn. The term fancy, complex and novelty are considered synonymous. e.g. See more ideas about Novelty yarn, Yarn, Ribbon yarn. Multi filaments are composed of many filaments. Novelty: Novelty yarns are easy to recognize because their appearance is so different from traditional yarns: Ribbon: A knitted ribbon in rayon or a rayon blend. The warp yarns are then split into strips between the warps and the soft filling yarns held within the twists of the warps. Also, filling yarns are less susceptible to damage due to strain and are easier to vary for design purposes. The masses of fibres from these numerous bales will be fed into a machine called a blending feeder. It is also called ground or foundation yarn. The yarn has a soft, fuzzy and springy surface. It is quite easy to use these glamorous fibres and adaptable yarns. Novelty yarn is defined as "a yarn produced for a special effect. Folding increases the strength. Each warp yarn is controlled separately by punched cards that are laced together in a continuous strip. There is a wide variety of novelty yarns that are produced using different techniques and types of fibres and strands. The general appearance of a spiral yarn is that of a coarse yarn wound around a fine yarn, giving the effect of a spiral. Yarns made from long length filament fibers and fabrics are like silk. Georgette is a light, flowy fabric that is fairly breathable. A popular fabric using boucle yarn is astrakhan. Tweed yarns are found in apparel, upholstery and draperies. This is a great deal and a wonderful way to add to your stash. As noted from the definition most fancy yarns are either single or plied. There are two types of yarns, i.e., spun yarns and filamentous yarns. Boucle yarns are also known as loop or curl yarns. Novelty bulky yarns add crease resistance to the fabric. First a fabric is constructed on a leno weave using soft, twisted yarns in the filling. Yarn count, 2. The resultant flake yarn has varying thickness and softness. Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with unusual features, structure or fiber composition such as slubs, inclusions, metallic or synthetic fibers, laddering and varying thickness introduced during production. Novelty yarns that are loose and bulky give crease resistance to a fabric but they make the fabric spongy and hard to sew. Novelty yarns are a great way to add an extra dimension to your knitting and crocheting projects! There are two types of yarn twist S and Z. Yarn numbering systems are therefore used to express a relationship between a unit length and weight of yarns. Carry along feathers, loops or eyelash yarns to create new textures and bring drama to your garments. 4.Rope yarns are produced by twisting two or more cord yarns. Yarn strength depends on the quality of the fibres, the yarn regularity and the twist. Eyelash yarn, bouclé yarn, ribbon yarn, and ladder yarn are all novelty yarns that have unique textures. It determines the appearance as well as the durability and serviceability of a fabric. Metallic yarn is a flat, ribbon like yarn made from metallic fibres. Twist in yarn, 4. By incorporating slubs, tightening twist, or adding/subtracting different fiber blends, Thick & Thin Yarns change shape and gauge as you work with them. The novelty effect is quite pronounced and the surface of the yarn is soft. Slub yarns 2. Most are made of synthetic fibers, like nylon or polyester, but there are other types that are composed of all natural fibers like wool or cotton. Nitika RanaAdjunct FacultyInstitute of Apparel Management (IAM),Mumbai Campus.Email: nitikarana2009@hotmail.com. Ratine Yarn is a complex ply yarn in which, the effect ply is twisted in a spiral arrangement around the ground ply. The lusture is improved by using metallic yarns and when used in garment, a normal silhouette can turn into a party wear dress. Novelty yarns like spike yarns are also being used in making soft toys. Textured yarns possess have stretch and/or bulk, provide greater breathability and absorption than regular filament yarns, provide greater insulation than regular filament yarns and also provide softer and drier hand than regular filament yarns. Novelty yarn and and types of novelty yarn is one kind of fancy yarn. There are many tutorials on the internet where you can learn to produce one. Novelty yarns may be single, plied or cord yarns. Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with such special effects as slubs, produced by intentionally including small lumps in the yarn structure, and synthetic yarns with varying thickness introduced during production. Novelty, Speciality & Fancy Knitting & Crochet Yarn. Novelty yarn effects are permanent. This effect is accomplished by allowing one of the plies to remain slack during the twisting operation, causing it to twist on itself and form a loop. The lap is unrolled and drawn onto a revolving cylinder covered with fine hooks or wide bristles. Novelty yarns provide the textile designer with lovely alternatives to traditional looking items. (50/1=50 single yarns). Spinning includes all the processes required to prepare and clean the fibers from the opening of the bale to the twisting of the yarn in its preparation for the textile loom. Tweeds are often made of wool because of its cohesiveness. Thick place in the yarn, 8. In addition to the amount of twist in a yarn, the direction of the twist is also designated. These yarns are providing us with a huge variety of surface ornamented fabrics at a low cost. Smooth fabrics should be sewn only with very regular yarns.In spun yarns, this is achieved by repeated doubling and drafting, and by combing out the short fibers. The irregularities may be subtle or very obvious and the intervals may be regular or random. There can be endless variety of novelty yarns. It can be made either by varying the amount of twist at regular intervals or by incorporating soft, thick, elongated tufts of fibre into the yarn at regular intervals with a core or binder yarn. Tweed yarn is a single, spun novelty yarn. Each Novelty Yarn Mystery Grab Bag includes three skeins of super fun novelty yarns, which may feature unusual fibers or characteristics and which are discounted by more than 70%. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine.Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. The flake effect is made by inserting soft, thick tufts of roving between between yarns at intervals. These fabrics are used for dresses, drapery and bedspreads. Flecks of short coloured fibres are twisted into the yarn to add interest. Even the most experienced weaver, knitter or crocheter will find brand new choices in novelty yarns. A variation done in the type of yarn used can change the complete outlook of a garment or a cushion cover. Twist variation in yarn, 5. Generally, this yarn involves a strand or two of "normal" yarn combined, often by twisting, with something else to create a more interesting color pattern or texture. Chenille: Although tricky to knit with, this yarn … Single yarns include spun, monofilament, and multifilament yarns. Light More Resilient Used in Woven & Knit. These yarns improve the aesthetic appeal of a fabric at a lower cost. Most of the novelty yarns are complex ply yarns. Stretch textured yarns 3. Textured yarns can be made from either filament fibers or staple fibers cut from filaments that have been given a textured configuration of some type. From shop GSMuellerDesigns. When woven or knitted into fabrics, they produce an altogether different look. A typical novelty yarn has three basic parts: 1.The ground or foundation or core. Thick & Thin Yarns are the perfect way to create unique fabrics without complicated stitch patterns. Knot yarns are also known as spot, nub or knop yarn. These yarns enhance the beauty of a fabric by producing interesting surface effects. Boucle yarn has closed loops at regular intervals along the yarn. Hairiness, 11. If novelty yarns are used in one direction only, they are usually in the filling direction.

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