Growing up, Allen’s grandfather told many stories about California. Additionally, Steps to Literacy in general strives to provide teachers and students will diverse titles. She explains that it wasn’t an actual train, but could be a farmer’s wagon or hearse covered with flowers with a slave hiding in the coffin. In this poignant memoir, Allen Say tells of his grandfather’s love of both Japan and the U.S. and his inability to choose between the two countries. by: Fantastic Mr. Fox. Find Brendan Buckley’s Universe and Everything in It at your local library. Stone Fox by John Reynolds Gardiner. Mystery and surprise lie on each page, making this an excellent book to read aloud to a class or for individual reading for advanced 3rd-grade readers. It would also be a popular chapter book class read aloud. Perfect for: Helping children learn the value of equality, fairness, and learning. Happy Paws: Layla and the Bots by Vicky Fang, illustrated by Christine Nishiyama Layla wants to help her amusement park owner friend keep the park open. 9 Great New Chapter Books for Ages 9 and Up. Cassie is distraught that she lost her brother until Aunt Harriet appears and tells Cassie about life as a slave and shows her the real Underground Railroad. by: Perfect for: A blend of the excitement of discovery and longing for where we’ve been. Mom’s the milk.” Being mixed race is just part of who he is. They are the perfect way to make sure you’re representing all students so your students can see themselves, their peers, and the vast unique and wonderful make up people! Her father, an astronomer, leads them into the forest to hide, and other Jews soon join them. He has a lot of questions, which he writes down in his “Book of Big Questions About Life, the Universe and Everything in It.” In this beginning chapter book, the big question on Brendan’s mind is one he’s not supposed to ask: Who is Grandpa DeBose, and why doesn’t his mother ever mention him or see him? Listening Libraries Diverse Chapter Books Rich Mentor Texts NGSS Science Book Collections Back to School Favorites White Board Tips Tactile Letters Christmas Crafts Small Group Organization STEM Tools Brain Breaks Calm Down Kit Ideas. Find Aunt Harriet’s Underground Railroad in the Sky at your local library. Have you ever stopped to examine your classroom library and compare the make up of the characters in your chapter books with the make up of the students in your classroom? by: “What scientific proof could be given to show that black people and white people shouldn’t get married or have kids? Guadalupe Garcia McCall’s debut was published by Lee & Low, which has been dedicated to publishing multicultural books since 1991. If kids ran the world from this magical tree house, the world would be a kinder, better place. Diverse Chapter Books for 2nd and 3rd Graders Molly Mac by Marty Kelley. Perfect for: Introducing a dark period in world history to young children. Maria’s cousins pitch in to help her find the ring. There's something for every reader in this diverse, unique collection featuring favorite characters and stories, contemporary classics, and thought-provoking nonfiction. PRIMARY PARADISE © 2013 | All rights reserved, Diverse and World Perspectives: Character Packs, browse the entire Diverse Perspectives Collection here. Marshals through an angry mob just to get to your classroom. I adore that this series features a strong, opinionated female character that students will love! This book is a work of art, with each page bordered by a photo from one of Ringgold’s “Woman on the Bridge” series of quilts on exhibit at the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Why? What books are you and your kids looking forward to reading in 2020? Perfect for: Kids who like making friends. Brown Girl Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson. Mama Panya’s Pancakes: A Village Tale from Kenya. Mostly, Brendan sees himself as a scientist. Mary Chamberlin and Rich Chamberlin, illustrated by: Mary Chamberlin and Rich Chamberlin - (Barefoot Books, 2005) 40 pages. The mother bird accepts Stellaluna as long as she acts like a bird, not a bat. Melba Liston, commonly referred to as the unsung hero of jazz, first picked up the trombone when she was seven. It’s perfect for third-grade readers who love mysteries, travel adventures, and plucky, determined main characters. “It was a big change, but we got through it. Gary Soto, illustrated by: Ed Martinez - (Putnam, 1993) 32 pages. by: First, this bilingual book includes Spanish words throughout and a Spanish glossary in the back. Multicultural chapter books for children ages 6 to 10 with a diverse group of characters. Grandma Gladys calls 10-year-old Brendan her “milk chocolate.” Brendan explains, “Dad’s the chocolate. Be Be jumps onto the train, which vanishes as it moves north toward free states and Canada. Find Through My Eyes at your local library. “I am stronger than I think – in Mexico, in the States, anywhere.”. Best Books for Grades 3-5, Recommended by Kids. Check out the posts below. by Matt de la Peña,illustrated by Loren Long. Massachusetts Children’s Book Award, 3rd and 4th Grade. One Crazy Summer by Rita Williams-Garcia. Students will love this spunky, silly character and the shenanigans she gets herself into! I would be remiss if I didn't start with a little disclaimer for … It is a great book for watching how a character grows and changes. He and his younger sister move with their mother from New York to Vermont. My favorite moments in my classroom are always the times when I look around the room and all of my students have their nose in a different book. When her dad accidentally swallows a watermelon seed, Irene’s father slowly turns into a tree. Students will love this spunky, silly character and the shenanigans she gets herself into! Favorite Diversity Picture Books for 4th of July. A challenge, though, is that there are so many animal characters that it can be hard to keep track of them. From this vantage point, Cassie can see the new union building that her dad’s working on, even though he’s not allowed to join the union because he’s Native American. Find our favorites at your local library: How Tia Lola Came to Stay, How Tia Lola Saved the Summer, How Tia Lola Ended Up Starting Over. These were often symbols sewn into quilts, which are a main focus of author and artist Faith Ringgold’s work. Faith Ringgold - (Crown Publishers, 1992) 32 pages. This series is written by Stacia Deusch who has written over 200 books, including Nancy Drew, Clue Crew, and some of the The Box Car Children books. This soft picture book explores the … When his daughter was nearly grown, Allen’s grandfather took the family to his homeland to live and see, “the mountains and rivers of his childhood.” His daughter got married in Japan and Allen was born there. Keena Ford books are a guided reading level K. If your students love a good mystery, than The Mysterious Makers of Shaker Street is the perfect series for them! African American Chapter Books for Kids. Cannon’s award-winning illustrations convey the nocturnal world beautifully. This list shares my favorites. Based on the author’s childhood experience, this story describes the journey of a family moving from Mexico to Los Angeles for a better life. Be careful what you wish for! Beginning Chapter Books with Diverse Main Characters. More Recommended 3rd Grade Read Aloud Books Indian No More by Charlene Willing McManis and Traci Sorell Rump: The Fairly True Tale of Rumplestiltskin by Liesel Shurtliff Faith Ringgold - (Crown Publishers, 1991) 32 pages. For that reason, I wouldn’t recommend this series to someone who i… I populated the second section with beginning chapter books with a diverse cast of characters, but set in western countries (primarily America, as that is what is available to me). Leo and Diane Dillon - (The Blue Sky Press, 2014) 32 pages. You can join my FREE Facebook Club for k-2 teachers here! Jan 31, 2019 - Explore Funtastic 4our's board "Third grade AR BOOKS" on Pinterest. Find If Kids Ran the World at your local library. By chance, Brendan meets his grandfather at a rock and mineral exhibit and begins seeing him in secret. The story is written as diary entries in English and Spanish that will resonate with any child who has left people and places behind for an unknown future. Her father moves ahead of the family to find a job and get green cards for everyone in the family. Even if the make up of your classroom and school isn’t particularly diverse, it’s still so important to share a variety of diverse chapter books with our students that reflect our students and the overall population. She investigates the problem then figures out a solution…people want to bring their dogs. The illustrations are beautiful, and students will be drawn in right away from the “about me” page! Find Grandfather’s Journey at your local library. So, here are 4 fantastically diverse chapter book series that all of your students will love! They’ll also love the science/STEM aspect, as the trio often flexes their maker skills! Are they truly the best? The hook: Miguel’s parents just got divorced. Best read toward the end of third grade or higher.” -Amy Brannon Storm Runners by Roland Smith “I teach 5th grade. Recipes and crafts ideas are also included. The children “learned to be quiet, to become shadows, how to turn invisible, sleeping all day long, waking only at night.” When even the forest isn’t safe, the family braves a dangerous trek to Spain, then a boat ride to England to live with a cousin. That’s why I absolutely love Steps to Literacy‘s Diverse and World Perspectives: Character Packs! Sign me up for updates relevant to my child's grade. Classics and new reads. This is perfect for students who are Spanish English Language Learners, especially. It was four years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that separate but equal schooling was unconstitutional, but New Orleans schools remained segregated by race. Her father tries to ease her worries by sharing his own story of moving from Arizona to Mexico as a child. With soft illustrations, this is a story of overcoming the worst adversity with dignity and the support of family and strangers. I have always had a passion for teaching and sharing with others and look forward to sharing my ideas with you! In this absorbing follow up to Tar Beach, Cassie Louise Lightfoot’s imagination soars to the skies, where she and her brother, Be Be, spot “an old ramshackled train in the sky.” The conductor is Harriet Tubman, the former slave who led hundreds of other slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad. by: Baby/Toddler (Ages 0 - 2) and Pre-K (Ages 3 - 5) Will I ever see Michi again?” writes Amada Irma. Perfect for: Kids who like to learn about other cultures. Cece Bell - (Harry N. Abrams, 2014) 248 pages. Perfect for: Kids who’ve been embarrassed by their family. by: As a young man, his grandfather took a steamship to the U.S. and explored the country. The Magnificent Mya Tibbs series by Crystal Allen. More often than not, slaves walked at night, following the North Star and looking for signs directing them to safe houses. AND BE SURE TO SIGN UP FOR MY NEWSLETTER FOR MORE TIPS, TRICKS, IDEAS AND FREEBIES! All live next door to the zoo. Find My Diary From Here to There/Mi diario de aquí hasta allá at your local library. American Indian Chapter Books for Kids Jane Yolen, illustrated by: Katie May Green - (Philomel Books, 2015) 40 pages. When she finally has a chance to show her bird siblings, Pip, Flutter and Flap, what life as a bat is like, they are left all in a muddle: “How can we be so different and feel so much alike?” one asks. Picture Books to Teach Gratitude. As teacher, we strive to provide fiction and non-fiction books. Imagine being 6 years old, starting a new school, and having to be escorted by armed U.S. I could recommend hundreds of books with diverse main characters. He fell in love with California. Perfect for: Helping children realize that while change is scary, it can build character. The evidence actually proved the opposite. See more ideas about Books, Chapter books, Childrens books. These sets have been carefully and thoughtfully curated to enhance your existing classroom library. Chapter Book Series Starring Diverse Girl Characters. Book list includes a variety of genres at an early reading level. Soon enough, Stellaluna learns to eat bugs and stop hanging by her feet. Molly is an inquisitive little girl who loves tacos and wants to be an artist, animal trainer, superhero, and a pirate when she grows up! Get the GreatSchools newsletter - our best articles, worksheets and more delivered weekly. Eight-year-old Cassie Louise Lightfoot narrates this story, which is loosely based on author and artist Faith Ringgold’s childhood in Harlem. Junebug by Alice Mead. This is a list of multicultural books for children - picture books through elementary chapter books. “The moment I am in one country, I am homesick for the other.”. Perfect for: A gentle yet deep look at the lengths slaves went to for freedom. These fun mysteries feature a diverse cast of three friends who solve mysteries and will have your students chuckling along the way! It includes exciting books that kids in grades 3 to 5 love, ranging from relatable chapter books to action-packed graphic novels. Here’s a shortlist of some to check out. Parenting » Book lists » Books that celebrate diversity for 3rd graders Books that celebrate diversity for 3rd graders Inspiring stories of triumph in the face of adversity that take place from Kenya and Paris to aboard the Underground Railroad and serving up tamales at home. Strange things happening at the zoo, along with the disappearance of Megan, lead the three other characters to search for her by sneaking into the zoo. Chapter books and picture books… and so on. by: Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry by Mildred D Taylor. by: Zoey, like her mom, can see magical creatures and is tasked to care for any injured creatures that might need help. Donna L. Washington, illustrated by: Stephen Taylor - (HarperTrophy, 1997) 40 pages. The award-winning authors show children from different parts of the world coming together to tackle — and handily solve — problems like hunger, stress, and world peace. Perfect for: Little ones who want to make the world a better place. Money is tight and his father is in jail, and Ghost has been having a lot of … The 2012 animated adaptation fleshes out the picture book with additional characters and songs while staying true to the story. Finding diverse chapter book series for elementary students can be difficult. The little girl never loses hope, believing that the stone angels carved into the buildings on their street in Paris were watching over them like guardian angels. As an added bonus, there’s a detailed afterward with more biographical facts for children who want to know more about Melba’s trials and triumphs. “Early chapter books” are good for kids who have moved beyond easy readers but are not yet ready for middle grade … With a strong female lead of color, Keena Ford is the perfect book for your classroom library. by: The next year, she played a solo on the radio. Ruby Bridges and Margo Lundell - (Scholastic Press, 1999) 63 pages. Ready? I have my favorites, of course, and I’m sure you do as well but here’s a start — my ever growing list of books with diverse main characters. Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis. I also answer some questions that teachers often ask regarding read alouds. The Mysterious Makers of Shaker Street books range from a guided reading level P-Q. What if I can’t learn English? Readers will be enchanted by this book with its messages of acceptance, friendship and a mothers’ love. Want to see more of my favorite resources from Steps to Literacy? Cece Bell lost her hearing at age 4. This sweet and funny memoir, drawn comic-book style and based on the author’s life, is a story about being different and about turning challenges into superpowers. This humorous series will draw your students in, and might even teach them a few lessons along the way! The device is big and awkward and it makes fitting in at school difficult. 3rd Grade Chapter Books from My 3rd Grade Son. But her loving manner, her magical way with people, and her cooking change his mind. That’s the true story of what happened to Ruby Bridges, the first black child to integrate William Frantz Public School in New Orleans, Louisiana, on November 14, 1960. Download an Extended List of LGBTQ Inclusive Middle Grade Books Diverse and Inclusive Family Books. Relatives are about to arrive and the excitement is high, when Maria makes a mistake that threatens to ruin the party, and maybe even Christmas itself: she’s lost her mother’s wedding ring in the tamales. Parenting » Book lists » Books that celebrate diversity for 5th and 6th graders Books that celebrate diversity for 5th and 6th graders Give your tween the gift of new ideas, experiences, and perspectives with these novels that they'll love — and that they'll never forget. by: Irene wishes her busy father would spend more time with the family. Fortunately, both Christmas Eve and a precious family treasure are rescued in the end. This incredible book — recipient of the Oppenheim Toy Portfolio Gold Award — delights with kid-friendly facts about Kenya, a map, Kiswahili greetings and sayings, and a recipe to make your own pancakes. W anting to Go To School Books: When School is a Privilege. Find The Story of Kwanzaa at your local library. by Roald Dahl, illustrated by Quentin Blake. Molly Mac books are a guided reading level L. There are so many reasons students will pick up the books in the Sofia Martinez series and not want to put them down! Mama Panya must figure out how to feed them all. Want to see the movie? We’re entering this new decade with another epic list of diverse reads to share with you. Books on dinosaurs and plants and space. I was the evidence.” Grandpa DeBose finally agrees and asks to be part of the family’s life. A great series for a 3rd grade books library. The poor little bat is knocked out of her mother’s grasp and lands in a birds’ nest. These sweet stories will take students to small-town Texas, where nine-year-old Mya navigates the ups and downs of family life and school with plenty of spunk. This warm, funny story about bridging cultures and the importance of family is the first in a series of three books. Now, she wears a hearing aid. Amada Irma Pérez, illustrated by: Maya Christina Gonzalez - (Children’s Book Press, 2002) 32 pages. One question I get asked frequently is this: What are great chapter books for children 6 – 12 years old (beginning and middle grade) with diversity, in particular with main characters of color? Reading Level: Age 5+ Audience: 3rd Grade Delivery: Independent read Diversity Focus: Moroccan/Australian/cultural differences and similarities To Teach: In this wordless book, 2 different cultures are shown side by side and compared. More Books Like Percy Jackson. ... Multicultural Early Chapter Books for Kids with Diverse Characters. When I see each of my students engaged in reading (and I’m sure you feel like same) I know I’m doing something right as a teacher. Curated especially for third grade classrooms, this book list spans a wide range of reading levels and can be used in group and individualized reading sessions. ** Also available from: Amazon. Jerdine Nolen, illustrated by: A.G. Ford - (Simon & Schuster/Paula Wiseman Books, 2014) 32 pages. Perfect for: Teaching the importance of sharing — even when there isn’t much to spare. The Year of the Garden by Andrea Cheng. by: Barnes … I’d like to thank Steps to Literacy for sponsoring this post. Top 10: Diversity Chapter Books Like Percy Jackson. Find Too Many Tamales at your local library. **Read to BOTTOM for my DON’T MISS chapter book read alouds!! There are also discussion and writing topics at the end of each book, which are perfect for a literature circle or guided reading group. A good multicultural book should: - present the character's culture accurately and sensitively; - feature marginalized protagonists or protagonists of color; - empower children of different ethnic backgrounds; - have strong literary merit. Diverse Chapter Books: Must Haves for 2nd & 3rd Grade Class Libraries. Love. Also for kids who like to learn about other cultures. Get it HERE. When Miguel’s colorful, irrepressible Tia Lola arrives from the Dominican Republic to help, Miguel is embarrassed by how she stands out. Please select another grade. Students will be able to identify with her feelings and the situations she’s dealing with while laughing along with her as she gets herself in and out of trouble! Most of the books … Through the images, the two characters show their similarities and their differences. Sofia Martinez books are a guided reading level K. Keena Ford is a spunky little girl who loves to write in her journal, and students who enjoy that dear diary, first person, format will love this series! by: I’m always looking for chapter book series for Sophia to read because if she likes the first one, there’s more of the series! Diverse Chapter Books: Must Haves for 2nd & 3rd Grade Class Libraries Have you ever stopped to examine your classroom library and compare the make up of the characters in your chapter books with the make up of the students in your classroom? “The one who had kept us safe in the forest,” thinks the girl. Ruby’s story is told through her memories of that year, through the recollections of her mother; her teacher, Mrs. Henry; and friends; and through writings, newspaper articles, and dramatic photographs. Despite the fact that the tree is always in the backyard, Irene and her family long for Papa to return to his former self — even if he is often away. I’ve mentioned before the importance of exposing our children to books that show diverse characters (without being stereotypical). Find Mama Panya’s Pancakes: A Village Tale from Kenya at your local library. As kids age 8 and 9 get deeper into the world of chapter books, they begin to discover the genres that most appeal to them, from sci-fi, horror, and fantasy to mystery, history, and adventure.From beloved classics to more recent sensations, these relatable books will be a hit with your third-grader. Simple Christmas Countdown Activities for Kids, 25+ Simple Home Learning Activities for Pre-K to First Grade, The First 3 Minutes of Guided Reading: Fluency Drills for the Win. As an adult, Allen followed in his grandfather’s footsteps to California. Sofia Martinez by Jacqueline Jules. All of the Above by Shelley Pearsall. The hook: Stellaluna is a baby fruit bat happily flying along with her mother when an owl attacks. Top 1o Favorite Diversity Books For Kids By Kids Adika loves his mama’s pancakes! Below I discuss what I believe are the BEST read aloud chapter books for 3rd-grade. But once she discovers that it lets her hear things others can’t, such as the teacher talking in the next room, she finds a way to fit in with her classmates: by becoming El Deafo, a Listener for All! You Might Also Like: DIVERSE MIDDLE GRADE BOOKS. Perfect for: Reading aloud to discuss how the characters relate to one another. Sundee T. Frazier - (Delacorte Press, 2007) 208 pages. And finally, seven year old Sofia as a character and the stories themselves are incredibly relatable and fun! Once again, students will be able to see themselves in the very relatable mishaps and mix ups that Keena finds herself facing. These sweet stories will take students to small-town Texas, where nine-year-old Mya navigates the ups and downs of family life and school with plenty of spunk. But, it’s so important to be sure our classroom libraries reflect the religions, genders, and ethnic make up of both our classroom and society in general. Willy Wonka-Like Chapter Books. Me. I am sharing what are my personal favorite read aloud chapter books for 3rd-grade, and which ones in experience have gone over well. Stone Angel covers a difficult subject without scary details. Find Little Melba and Her Big Trombone at your local library. I only share about resources, products, and companies that I use and believe in and I believe will be beneficial to you as well! On a trip to the market, he gets so excited, that he invites everyone he encounters to a pancake dinner at his house. Representation matters. “But what if we’re not allowed to speak Spanish? Zoey and Sassafras Dragons and Marshmallows #1 by Asia Citro, illustrated by Marion Lindsay SCIENCE / FANTASY Kids love these entertaining and well-written stories that have the coolest mix of science and magic, a diverse main character, and fantastic illustrations. Perfect for: History buffs and music aficionados. Ghost A National Book Award finalist, Jason Reynolds’s Ghost is the story of an African American middle school runner with the talent to qualify for the Junior Olympics—if he can learn to control his temper. Learn about the origins of Kwanzaa. ... Shop books for reluctant readers in grades 3 to 5 below now! Top 10 Diverse Superhero Books. Daisy Dawson series, by Steve Voake guided reading level: N This is a gentle series about Daisy Dawson, a wholesome and carefree little girl who talks to animals (and understands what they say to her). Students will laugh along as they read about her adventures, and they’ll also relate to her thoughts, questions, and problems. All Are Welcome. She beckons Cassie and Be Be to come aboard. Perfect for: Helping kids see the silver lining. I received compensation for this post, but all opinions, ideas, and thoughts are mine. This age-appropriate biography tells the story of Melba’s hard work and talent in a way that children can relate to — and inspires little ones as they see Melba earning her place among jazz giants, playing with the likes of Dizzy Gillespie and Billie Holiday. Server Issue: Please try again later. I guarentee your students will not be able to put down this engaging series! You won’t find anything questionable, gross, or dark in these books. Tar Beach blends folk-art, autobiography, and historical fiction in a story about learning to overcome the indignity of discrimination and slavery. 10 Picture Books About Africa to Teach Empathy. 38. Ringgold’s vivid, richly colored illustrations are integral to the story. (Pre-K – 1) Follow a diverse group of children from all kinds of families through a day at school, where everyone is welcomed with open arms. When the Nazis capture Paris during World War II, a young Jewish girl, her little brother, and their parents flee to survive. He moved to San Francisco with his wife, and there, Allen’s mother was born. Allen Say - (HMH Books for Young Readers, 2008) 32 pages. Tar beach is the rooftop of their apartment building where Cassie, her parents, her brother, Be Be, and their neighbors spend hot summer evenings. I know you can, too,” he tells Amada Irma. Yes! Anyone who has ever been in a position where they can’t be who they really are will relate to Stellaluna’s predicament. When the family is reunited in California and settled in to their new home, Amada Irma realizes that her father was right. Katheryn Russell-Brown, illustrated by: Frank Morrison - (Lee & Low Books, 2014) 40 pages. The seven principles or beliefs of the holiday are explained in detail and accompanied by lovely illustrations. Chapter Books with Diverse Main Characters What are great chapter books for children 8 - 12 (middle grade) with diversity, in particular with main characters of color? Not just the classics BUT updated reads that REALLY cover diverse topics and interest of students as well as important authors! Janell Cannon - (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993) 46 pages. When the family returns to France, there’s a stone angel carved into the outside of their new apartment. It was a snowy Christmas Eve night and Maria was in the kitchen helping her mother make stacks of tamales for Christmas dinner. Well, no! by: by: That’s why I’ve teamed up with Steps to Literacy to bring you 4 series of diverse chapter book that your students will absolutely love! The Toothpaste Millionaire by Jean Merrill. Alexandra Penfold. They specifically work with publishers who are committed to providing diverse titles like Capstone, Lee and Low, among several others. Best third grade read aloud chapter books, best fourth grade read aloud chapter books, best fifth grade read aloud chapter books….all right here! Inspiring stories of triumph in the face of adversity that take place from Kenya and Paris to aboard the Underground Railroad and serving up tamales at home. Perfect for: Helping kids understand the lasting impact of slavery and discrimination. Despite her talent, little Melba had to overcome racial and gender bias in an era dominated by white men. There is no Book list topic for this grade. Brendan learns that Grandpa DeBose believes that “families should look alike,” so Brendan considers the statement scientifically. I began last year with the chapter book Storm Runners by Roland Smith. Students want to see themselves in their books, and when they do, they are more likely to connect with the story and develop a love of reading. It also allows them to learn about other culture’s food, holidays,and traditions! “I came to love the land my grandfather had loved, and I stayed on and on until I had a daughter of my own.” Watching his own daughter grow up, he understood his grandfather’s unresolved yearning for Japan. by: Sorry for the inconvenience.